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Ms. Pearson's Science Site

Laws, Formulas,Conversions 2004-2005 1st semester

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Laws, Formulas, and conversions for physical science

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K
Kilo
1000

H
Hecto
100

De
Deca
10
BASE
Liter
Meter
Gram
D
Deci
1/10
C
Centi
1/100
M
Milli
1/1000

The Changing of matter from solids to liquids to gases and such...
 
  • Evaporation is a liquid to a gas
  • Condensation is a gas to a liquid
  • Sublimiation goes from a solid to a gas without ever being a liquid

Energy Level
Max # Electrons
1
2

2

8

3

18

4

32

5

54

3 Types of Bonds

  • Ionic bonds-when there is an exchange of electrons between atoms of different elements
  • Convalent bonding- when electrons are shared between 2 atoms *Not as strong as an ionic bond*
  • Metallic bonding- atoms are in a "sea" of electrons.

Polar molecule - Sometimes in a covalent bond atoms share the electrons unequally. The stronger atom holds the electrons more closely and has a negitive charge. The weaker atom holds the electrons less closely and has a more positive charge.*Polar means "having oposite ends"*

Nonpolar molecule- Sometimes atoms in a covelant bond share the electrons equally. Then neither atom has charge, *"this is usually occurs with atoms of the same element or those that are symmetric"* 

Prefix
Meanings
Mono-
One

Di-

Two

Tri-

Three

Tetra-

Four

Penta-

Five

Hexa-

Six

Hepta-

Seven

Octa-

Eight

Nona-

nine

 

Laws of physical science
 
Gas Laws
 
Charles' Law - the volume of a gas increases as the temperature increases, the volume of a gas decreases as the temperature decreases as long as the pressure is constant.
 
Boyles' Law - as the pressure of a gas  increases the volume decreases;as the pressure of a gas decreases the volume then increases as long as temperature is constant.
 
Liquid Laws
 
Archimedes' principle - the bouyant force acting on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
 
Bernoulli's principle - as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases.
 
Venturi effect - reduction in pressure of a fluid resulting from the speed increase as fluids are forced to flow faster through narrow spaces.
 
Chemical compound LAWS
 
law of conservation of mass- Developed by Antoine Lavoisier. Executed during the french revolution
Matter can not be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction.
The same # of atoms of the elements must be the same before & after a reaction
 

Conversions
 
  • 1 ATM (Atomospheric Pressure) = 101.3kpa
  • 0 degs. C = 273K
  • 100 degs. C = 373K
  • 1000 m = 1 km
  • 100 cm = 1 m

When you want to convert:

inches to centimeters:  multiply inches by 2.54

centimeters to inches:  multiply centimeters by 0.39

miles to kilometers:  multiply miles by 1.61

kilometers to miles:  multiply kilometers by 0.62

degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit = 5/9 x (degree F - 32)

degrees Fahrenheit to Celsius = 9/5 x degree C + 32

degrees Celsius to Kelvin = degree C + 273

Kelvin to degrees Celsius = Kelvin temp. - 273

 

AN EXAMPLE OF A DOT DIAGRAM
 
Exothermic REACTIONS
 
 
 
Nuclear FUSION AN EXAMPLE
Nuclear Fission
 
DIAGRAM OF DIFFUSION
picture explained in site text
     

Confusing Nuclear stuff
Nuclear fission - spliting a nucleaus into 2 nuclei with smaller masses
 
     Atoms of elements above #90 have a large enough nuclei to undergo fussion
 
     Usually the products of a fussion reaction include 2 or 3 individual neutrons.
 
 
 
   Nuclear fission bombards other nuclei, releasing more nuetrons.
 
Nuclear fusion - Combining 2 nuclei to get one larger atom extremely high temperatures are nessary for controlled nuclear fussion these are also called thermonuclear reactions.
 
Isotope notation - numerical Sub scripts and superscripts are used to show the mass number and atomic number of isotopes. the isotope of carbon and hydrogen are given as examples.

12     6p+
    C
6       6no
CARBON -12
1        1p+
     H
1         0no
HYDROGEN -1
13      6p+
     C
6        7no
CARBON -13
2         1p+
     H
1         1no
HYDROGEN -2
 (Deuterium)
14          6pt
       C
6            8n
CARBON-14
3          1p+
      H
1          2no
HYDROGEN-3
 (Trinium)

Alpha decay
BETA
 
in GAMMA there is no change
 
the differences in hydrocarbons
 
 
 
Example of SATURATED Hydrocarbon
Isopentane.JPG (11287 bytes)
And an unsaturated would look like this
Acetylene.JPG (4011 bytes)
 
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
 Toluene short cut---> Benzene
 
converting name of methanes
NOTE: Isotane is a isomer of Propane

Formulas

  • Area = l*w
  • Volume = l*w*h
  • Preasure law = P1*V1 = P2*V2

 

Other things you may want to remember....
 
dependent or independent varible
speed needs distance and time
speed = dependent
distance = independent
time = independent
 
To put it more simpily dependent HAS to have 2 or more independent values; you can not get something with out the independent value; then the dependent value would not exist!
 
Types of Graphs
Line Graph = to show change over time.
Bar Graph = to show  comparisons
Circle Graph = to show percentages
 
4 Basic States of Matter
Solid =Molecules are tightly packed together. Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume.
Liquid = definite volume, no definite shape [Takes the shape of its container]
Gas = No definite shape or volume
Plasma = SUPER HEATED, charged particle : the most prevalent state of matter  in the universe, such as the sun and lightning
 
The Atom Propertys
Atomic Mass =  # of protons and # nuetrons 
Atomic Numbrer = # of electrons and # of protons
Valence electrons = the number of electrons there are in the outermost level.
 
ION?
Positive ion = is when an atom has lost 1 or more electrons
Negative ion = is when an atom has gained 1 or more electrons
 

information you can get from a chemical equation

  1. Elements involved
  2. reactants and products
  3. The amounts of each element in the reaction
  4. Type of reaction
How to write a biconditional statement
  • the positive ion is writen 1st
  • the negitive ion is writen 2nd
  • the positive ion keeps its full name
  • while the negitive ion has the first part of its name and has -ide added to the end of it

 

What is a subscript and how in the world am I suposed to do one?

  • lets say you wish to combine Be which is Berillium and is in group #2
  • and combine it with N being Nitrogen whichis in group #15
  • using the oxidation numbers we find out first which element goes 1st 
  • Group # 2 has an oxidation number of 2+
  • Group #15 has an oxidation number of 3-
  • There for group #2 would be written 1st and group #15 would be written 2nd.
  • (Be+2) (N 3-)
  •            x            
  • cross these and you get
  • Be3N2
  • the subscrpt tells you the amount of atoms of each element is combined in the compound

Atomic Mass Unit = AMU
Avogadros number = 6.02 *10 to the 23rd power

Physical or Chemical

  1. Physical change is a change in size, shape, color, state, Matter.
  2. Chemical change is when a new substance is formed
  • Ways to identify a chemical reaction
  • Odor
  • Gas Produced
  • Temperture Change
  • Precipitate Forms (liquids forming solids)
  • Bubbles form

Steps for balancing chemical Equations

 

Step 1. Use the correct formulas. Check the formulas of the reactants and products.

 

Step 2. Determine if the equation is balanced. Count the number of atoms of each element on the reactant side and the product side. Count a polyatomic ion as a group if its formula is unchanged.

Step 3. Balance the equation one element at a time. Pick an element, and balance the equation for that element by placing coefficients in front of the formulas to equal the number of one both sides of the arrow. A typical starting place is with a formula that has subscripts. Never try to balance an equation by changing the subscripts of a formula- that would make the formula incorrect. Balance diatomic elements last.

 

Step 4. Check to see if the equation is balanced. Sometimes balancing one element will put another element out of balance. If that happens, repeat steps 3 and 4 until the equation is balanced. Make sure the coefficients you use are the smallest possible whole numbers. If you can divide all the coefficients you use are the smallest possible whole numbers. If you can divide all the coefficients by 2 or some other number, do so to make them small as possible.

 

Things you must know in order to read a chemical equation

R ---> P

R = reactant, ----> = yields , P =Product

 

  • Reactants : the compounds or elements involved the reaction
  • Products : the new substances that are formed
  • Limited reactant = is used up first.
  • Excess Reactant is not fully used up.
  • Percent yield = the actual yield [what you really got] divided by the Predicted yield [what you expected to get].

Classifying chemical reactions

  1. Synthesis
    • two or more substances join to form one product

        A + B AB
  2. Decomposition
    • One reactant breaks down to form two or more products

        AB A + B
  3. Single Displacement
    • One element replaces another in a compound

        A + BC -> AC + B

          or

        D + BC -> BD + C

  4. Double Displacement
    • two compounds react to form two different compounds
    • The positive part of the 1st compound combines with the negative part of the second compound (They swap partners)

        AB + CD -> AD + CB
    • A precipitate, water or gas is produced when two ionic compounds combine
  5. Combustion
        
    o ->CO2+ H2O

 

Endothermic [->] Exothermic

if energy is required to start a reactant it is endothermic

Energy [->] a+b

if energy is produced from the reactant it is exotherimic

a+b [<-] Energy

Acid & Bases

  • On a personal level - acids & bases help digest our food
  •  In your mouth saliva is a slight acid it is there to break down foods chemical compounds
  • In your stomic - Hcl (hydrochloric acid) breaks down food farther -very strong acid- currosive
  • Bicarbonate in pancreas neutralizes HCl. bicarbonate is a base.

[Ph]
(N < 7) = [Acid]
(N = 7) = [Neutral]
(N > 7) = [Base]

Acid Rain Ph range of (3-5.5) range

Acid - chemical that contributes H+ to a solution.
if you see H by itself more than likely its an acid

A Base Chemical that contributes OH- to a solution.
if you see OH its more than likely to be a base

A netrual compund would be a...

Salt contains neither (H+) or (OH-)


 

OXIDATION NUMBERS

Note: Some websites have only an image such as diagrams and worksheets online from other websites are automaticly shrunk Dont worry its just shrinking the image so you can see the whole image if you hold your mouse over the picture you will notice that a box showing up with arrows coming out of its side click that and it will maximize the image.

Blacksmithing through out history

<click here for ALOT of information concerning blacksmithing>

Alchemy

<click here for more information or a review of alchemy>

<click here for information on the philospher stone and the elixer of life>

<Click here for people,animals, ancient texts translated and info on the emerald stone and its description>

<some symbols of alchemy>

<reference symbols>

Diagrams

Click here For a Periodic Table with alot of information that you may want!

Click here for a diagram of a atoms structure

Click here for a diagram of polar molecules

Worksheets

<click here for a worksheet to work on to get an understanding with chemical reactions and stablilizing them>

PDF
<for pdf style worksheets and so forth you will need acrobat reader most computers already have it installed but if you need acrobat reader.>

<click here for a pdf worksheet on identifing reactions>

QUIZES

<click here to take an online quiz on naming compounds to see what you know!>

Lessons and information

<Global Warming>

<click here to get an understanding of global warming for your report>

Penny ~VS~ HCL

penny expirement

<Nuclear Stuff!>

<alpha, beta, gamma waves>

<Click here for information on diffusion>

<Compounds>

<Click here for more info on binary compounds>

<lesson on Writing Formulas [Binary Compounds]>

<click here for a lesson on Naming Compounds>

<click here learn what factors speed up or slow down a chemical reaction>

<States of matter>

<Click here for info on the states of matter>

<Periodic Table>

<Click here for information on periodic table>

<BONDS>

<Click here for information on all forms of [BONDS]>

<Other>

<click here for information. On Matter,Motion Fluids, Friction, Static Electricity, Magnetism>