Ms. Pearson's Science Site Laws, Formulas,Conversions 2004-2005 1st semester
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Laws, Formulas, and conversions for physical science

 K Kilo 1000 HHecto100 De Deca 10 BASE Liter Meter Gram D Deci 1/10 C Centi 1/100 M Milli 1/1000

The Changing of matter from solids to liquids to gases and such...

• Evaporation is a liquid to a gas
• Condensation is a gas to a liquid
• Sublimiation goes from a solid to a gas without ever being a liquid

 Energy Level Max # Electrons 1 2 2 8 3 18 4 32 5 54

3 Types of Bonds

• Ionic bonds-when there is an exchange of electrons between atoms of different elements
• Convalent bonding- when electrons are shared between 2 atoms *Not as strong as an ionic bond*
• Metallic bonding- atoms are in a "sea" of electrons.

Polar molecule - Sometimes in a covalent bond atoms share the electrons unequally. The stronger atom holds the electrons more closely and has a negitive charge. The weaker atom holds the electrons less closely and has a more positive charge.*Polar means "having oposite ends"*

Nonpolar molecule- Sometimes atoms in a covelant bond share the electrons equally. Then neither atom has charge, *"this is usually occurs with atoms of the same element or those that are symmetric"*

 Prefix Meanings Mono- One Di- Two Tri- Three Tetra- Four Penta- Five Hexa- Six Hepta- Seven Octa- Eight Nona- nine

Laws of physical science

Gas Laws

Charles' Law - the volume of a gas increases as the temperature increases, the volume of a gas decreases as the temperature decreases as long as the pressure is constant.

Boyles' Law - as the pressure of a gas  increases the volume decreases;as the pressure of a gas decreases the volume then increases as long as temperature is constant.

Liquid Laws

Archimedes' principle - the bouyant force acting on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

Bernoulli's principle - as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases.

Venturi effect - reduction in pressure of a fluid resulting from the speed increase as fluids are forced to flow faster through narrow spaces.

Chemical compound LAWS

law of conservation of mass- Developed by Antoine Lavoisier. Executed during the french revolution
Matter can not be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction.
The same # of atoms of the elements must be the same before & after a reaction

Conversions

• 1 ATM (Atomospheric Pressure) = 101.3kpa
• 0 degs. C = 273K
• 100 degs. C = 373K
• 1000 m = 1 km
• 100 cm = 1 m

When you want to convert:

inches to centimeters:  multiply inches by 2.54

centimeters to inches:  multiply centimeters by 0.39

miles to kilometers:  multiply miles by 1.61

kilometers to miles:  multiply kilometers by 0.62

degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit = 5/9 x (degree F - 32)

degrees Fahrenheit to Celsius = 9/5 x degree C + 32

degrees Celsius to Kelvin = degree C + 273

Kelvin to degrees Celsius = Kelvin temp. - 273

AN EXAMPLE OF A DOT DIAGRAM

Exothermic REACTIONS

Nuclear FUSION AN EXAMPLE

DIAGRAM OF DIFFUSION

Confusing Nuclear stuff
Nuclear fission - spliting a nucleaus into 2 nuclei with smaller masses

Atoms of elements above #90 have a large enough nuclei to undergo fussion

Usually the products of a fussion reaction include 2 or 3 individual neutrons.

Nuclear fission bombards other nuclei, releasing more nuetrons.

Nuclear fusion - Combining 2 nuclei to get one larger atom extremely high temperatures are nessary for controlled nuclear fussion these are also called thermonuclear reactions.

Isotope notation - numerical Sub scripts and superscripts are used to show the mass number and atomic number of isotopes. the isotope of carbon and hydrogen are given as examples.

 12     6p+     C 6       6no CARBON -12 1        1p+      H 1         0no HYDROGEN -1 13      6p+      C 6        7no CARBON -13 2         1p+      H 1         1no HYDROGEN -2  (Deuterium) 14          6pt        C 6            8n CARBON-14 3          1p+       H 1          2no HYDROGEN-3 (Trinium)

Alpha decay
BETA

in GAMMA there is no change

the differences in hydrocarbons

Example of SATURATED Hydrocarbon
And an unsaturated would look like this

Aromatic Hydrocarbons
short cut--->

converting name of methanes
NOTE: Isotane is a isomer of Propane

 Formulas Area = l*w Volume = l*w*h Preasure law = P1*V1 = P2*V2   Other things you may want to remember....   dependent or independent varible speed needs distance and time speed = dependent distance = independent time = independent   To put it more simpily dependent HAS to have 2 or more independent values; you can not get something with out the independent value; then the dependent value would not exist!   Types of Graphs Line Graph = to show change over time. Bar Graph = to show  comparisons Circle Graph = to show percentages   4 Basic States of Matter Solid =Molecules are tightly packed together. Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. Liquid = definite volume, no definite shape [Takes the shape of its container] Gas = No definite shape or volume Plasma = SUPER HEATED, charged particle : the most prevalent state of matter  in the universe, such as the sun and lightning   The Atom Propertys Atomic Mass =  # of protons and # nuetrons  Atomic Numbrer = # of electrons and # of protons Valence electrons = the number of electrons there are in the outermost level.   ION? Positive ion = is when an atom has lost 1 or more electrons Negative ion = is when an atom has gained 1 or more electrons   information you can get from a chemical equation Elements involved reactants and products The amounts of each element in the reaction Type of reaction How to write a biconditional statement the positive ion is writen 1st the negitive ion is writen 2nd the positive ion keeps its full name while the negitive ion has the first part of its name and has -ide added to the end of it   What is a subscript and how in the world am I suposed to do one? lets say you wish to combine Be which is Berillium and is in group #2 and combine it with N being Nitrogen whichis in group #15 using the oxidation numbers we find out first which element goes 1st  Group # 2 has an oxidation number of 2+ Group #15 has an oxidation number of 3- There for group #2 would be written 1st and group #15 would be written 2nd. (Be+2) (N 3-)            x             cross these and you get Be3N2 the subscrpt tells you the amount of atoms of each element is combined in the compound Atomic Mass Unit = AMUAvogadros number = 6.02 *10 to the 23rd power Physical or Chemical Physical change is a change in size, shape, color, state, Matter. Chemical change is when a new substance is formed Ways to identify a chemical reaction Odor Gas Produced Temperture Change Precipitate Forms (liquids forming solids) Bubbles form Steps for balancing chemical Equations   Step 1. Use the correct formulas. Check the formulas of the reactants and products.   Step 2. Determine if the equation is balanced. Count the number of atoms of each element on the reactant side and the product side. Count a polyatomic ion as a group if its formula is unchanged. Step 3. Balance the equation one element at a time. Pick an element, and balance the equation for that element by placing coefficients in front of the formulas to equal the number of one both sides of the arrow. A typical starting place is with a formula that has subscripts. Never try to balance an equation by changing the subscripts of a formula- that would make the formula incorrect. Balance diatomic elements last.   Step 4. Check to see if the equation is balanced. Sometimes balancing one element will put another element out of balance. If that happens, repeat steps 3 and 4 until the equation is balanced. Make sure the coefficients you use are the smallest possible whole numbers. If you can divide all the coefficients you use are the smallest possible whole numbers. If you can divide all the coefficients by 2 or some other number, do so to make them small as possible.   Things you must know in order to read a chemical equation R ---> P R = reactant, ----> = yields , P =Product   Reactants : the compounds or elements involved the reaction Products : the new substances that are formed Limited reactant = is used up first. Excess Reactant is not fully used up. Percent yield = the actual yield [what you really got] divided by the Predicted yield [what you expected to get]. Classifying chemical reactions Synthesis two or more substances join to form one product A + B AB Decomposition One reactant breaks down to form two or more products AB A + B Single Displacement One element replaces another in a compound A + BC -> AC + B or D + BC -> BD + C Double Displacement two compounds react to form two different compounds The positive part of the 1st compound combines with the negative part of the second compound (They swap partners) AB + CD -> AD + CB A precipitate, water or gas is produced when two ionic compounds combine Combustion     o ->CO2+ H2O   Endothermic [->] Exothermic if energy is required to start a reactant it is endothermic Energy [->] a+b if energy is produced from the reactant it is exotherimic a+b [<-] Energy Acid & Bases On a personal level - acids & bases help digest our food  In your mouth saliva is a slight acid it is there to break down foods chemical compounds In your stomic - Hcl (hydrochloric acid) breaks down food farther -very strong acid- currosive Bicarbonate in pancreas neutralizes HCl. bicarbonate is a base. [Ph](N < 7) = [Acid](N = 7) = [Neutral](N > 7) = [Base] Acid Rain Ph range of (3-5.5) range Acid - chemical that contributes H+ to a solution.if you see H by itself more than likely its an acid A Base Chemical that contributes OH- to a solution.if you see OH its more than likely to be a base A netrual compund would be a... Salt contains neither (H+) or (OH-)   OXIDATION NUMBERS
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